This type of media coverage may have important adverse effects on public policy when politicians respond to the furore raised by unbalanced reporting of extreme views.
It arguably occurred, for example, in the stem-cell debate with the disproportionate media coverage given to a few maverick scientists and religious adherents who proposed cloning a human being. The media have already started to focus their attention on life extension research. Newspaper coverage in the UK of the publication of the first draft of the human genome focused on the prospects of longevity Smart, , with some journalists suggesting that advances in molecular bioscience would allow us to live forever.
Others painted a less favourable picture of interminable old age; few gave serious consideration to the social, psychological and economic costs of increasing trends towards longer lives. This media ambivalence may mirror public opinion but again there is no empirical data to determine whether this is the case.
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This neglect of the public's attitudes is astonishing, given that public interest can have far more influence on the direction and application of biomedical research than can scientific evidence. One of the few examples of research on public attitudes towards life extension suggests that it makes a lot of sense to survey the public.
It found that most people believe mistakenly that the US government regulates vitamins, minerals and food supplements because they assume that these products were approved by a government agency, such as the Food and Drug Administration, in much the same way as pharmaceuticals. Although more than half of the respondents said they had seen, heard or read something about anti-ageing medicine, the majority did not believe that taking vitamins or other supplements could prevent or halt the ageing process.
At the same time, there is a rapidly increasing demand for products that claim to delay ageing, now that the post-World-War II baby-boomer generation nears retirement age. The demand for anti-ageing products may indicate an obsession with living longer, but it may also be a fascination with appearing youthful or with health and fitness that is driving consumer interest. Until empirical evidence about these issues is available, it is hard to draw meaningful conclusions about public opinion.
What is clear, however, is that this interest among a largely affluent generation of people has created a huge market for products, services and interventions that all claim to overcome the effects of ageing and even prolong life. Post estimated that by around 2, physicians in the USA had established practices that specialized in longevity medicine to cater for the elderly. The Internet has further enhanced the ability of companies to meet this demand with a wide range of products and services Turner, a. Many companies and organizations now promote a vast array of anti-ageing products, but there is no scientific evidence that any of these interventions actually delay or reverse ageing.
Most of these products target only the effects of the ageing process, rather than ageing itself, but consumers are not always aware of the difference. Given the increasing demand for anti-ageing therapies and products, there is a huge potential for consumer fraud and exploitation by companies that promote their anti-ageing products using unscientific and unsubstantiated claims Dangour et al , ; Perls, Some have therefore argued that scientists have a responsibility to inform the public and present 'the real story' about anti-ageing interventions Juengst et al , a.
But the question remains as to how effective such public education campaigns will be if the temptation for many journalists to sensationalize minor scientific discoveries seems irresistible Turner, a. Growing old is not made easier by hucksters and charlatans who sell all kinds of products that claim to alleviate the ageing process or extend life expectancy.
Conversely, biomedical research will probably provide new therapies and drugs that could ease the burden of growing old and enable longer lives, if the optimists have it right.
Furthermore, the populations of developing countries already enjoy much longer average and maximum lifespans, which puts their social security systems under increasing pressure. These trends support calls for an open debate among scientists, politicians and the general public. However, the absence of empirical research on the community's acceptance of, and broader attitudes towards, different types of life extension technology is a crucial gap in this policy debate, and there is a pressing need for interdisciplinary research to examine public assumptions Barzilai et al , ; Inui, ; Turner, c ; Wick, In the absence of better knowledge, critics and supporters just assume that the general populace will enthusiastically embrace or reject life extension technology—whatever suits their arguments best.
There is insufficient evidence to support either claim. It is time that social scientists begin to collect some. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. EMBO Rep. Jayne C.
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Lucke 1 and Wayne Hall 1. Lucke 1 Jayne C. Wayne Hall 1 Jayne C. He was chosen to write a sizable portion of the New Testament. In his writings he gave a more fully developed theology than any other apostle. He probes the deepest depths and rises to the highest heights of the mighty plan of redemption. He sweeps in all of God's majestic provisions of grace and redemption. He presents the light of salvation for the believer and the darkness of doom for the rejectors of God's grace.
One can feel the pulsating heartthrobs throughout his mighty epistles. Paul did not have the privilege of the three years enjoyed by the other disciples in the school of Christ, the master teacher of life and immortality. Saul the persecutor became Paul the apostle when he encountered Christ in a vision on the road to Damascus Acts 9. He spent a period of study and readjustment in Arabia Gal. But his teaching is identical with theirs—and that of Jesus—on the nature and destiny of man.
In fact, he surpasses other disciples in the fullness, clarity, and depth of his presentations.
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Paul was clearly God's unique apostle not only to the Gentiles but to the Diaspora as well. With Paul, Christ was not only the center but the circumference of his preaching and teaching, as well as of his personal faith and life. The essence of his message was humanity redeemed, justified by grace through faith in Jesus Christ alone, who by His life, death, and resurrection opened the way and provided the means for man's restoration and his reception of eternal life and Immortality in Christ, bestowed at the resurrection or at translation, at the Second Advent.
The three foundational facts of the death, burial, and resurrection of Christ, in their relation to sin and redemption for man, clearly constitute the sum and substance of the teaching and preaching of the great apostle. In his writings there is clarity and certainty in the provision of Life Only in Christ. That is unquestionably the essence of Paul's gospel. Here the highest, broadest, and deepest lessons in the school of grace are set forth. Here is the culmination of revealed apostolic truth. Here is the powerful portrayal of the divine philosophy of salvation in contrast with all human foibles and sophisms.
Paul wrote the Thessalonian epistles about A. These epistles and the Corinthians, written some six years later, are replete with the message of life, death, and Immortality. This was the earliest Pauline emphasis. And Paul was the most explicit and extensive of all the New Testament writers in holding steadfastly to the original Biblical position that man is not naturally immortal.
He maintains that man can become so only by a new in fusion of life. He is not so by nature; he becomes so by faith and transforming grace. Paul had little success in Athens, the city of Socrates and Plato. He would doubtless have secured a hearing if he had proclaimed the immortality of the soul and its corollaries. Moreover, he demonstrated here the futility of meeting reason with reason, logic with logic, and philosophy with philosophy.
Thenceforth he was a preacher of Jesus Christ, and Him crucified 1 Cor. Twenty times the apostle Paul declares that the wages of sin is death—absolute death, cessation of life. Twenty times he tells us that death is the punishment for sin—and also in a dozen places that life and immortality are special privileges, as in Romans and Twenty-five times Paul spells out the fate of the wicked, and constantly uses terms connoting total destruction such as: "In flaming fire taking vengeance on them that know not God. Paul speaks once of the resurrection of the wicked, or "unjust" Acts But their survival will be of such short duration that he usually passes it over in silence.
In his Epistle to the Hebrews' it is stated: "We are not of them who draw back unto perdition; but of them that believe to the saving of the soul. That which God consumes He does not allow still to exist. After the execution of the judgment, death will have no more victories, but will itself be abolished Rev. Immortality, Paul asserts, cannot begin before "this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and this mortal shall have put on immortality" 1 Cor. Here is Paul's key declaration in his earliest epistle:.
Now let us examine Paul's testimony from the eschatological side. The present writer accepts the arguments in favor of Pauline authorship as more weighty than those for all other candidates put together. Paul is careful even in his very first epistles to place his message in a graphic, well-defined eschatological setting. The Thessalonian epistles set forth the transcendent scenes of the Second Advent, with its glorification of the saints at the resurrection and subsequent destruction of all sinners.
This is presented as the climax of the divine plan of the ages—the end events being the culmination of a sweeping outline that takes in the centuries and leads up to the devastating scenes of the day of the Lord. That is therefore the initial New Testament emphasis. Paul leads into the Second Advent that closes the age. He depicts the Lord Jesus descending from Heaven and calling forth from their graves the sleeping saints, and catching up and translating the saints then living, to meet Him and thenceforth be together forever with their Lord.
Such is Paul's earliest depiction. Paul then immediately refers to the "day of the Lord," as coming unexpectedly to many, like "a thief in the night. But he assures the spiritually alert that that day will not overtake them as a thief v.
Immortal; Immortality Definition and Meaning - Bible Dictionary
In his Second Epistle to the Thessalonians Paul picks up the portrayal at the same point, the Second Advent, adding details as to the manner of that coming, but this time he stresses the terror and destruction visited upon the living wicked when Christ appears, in contrast with the glorification and rejoicing of the saints: "The Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with his mighty angels, in flaming fire taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ: who shall be punished with everlasting destruction [olethron aidnion, "eternal ruin, death"] from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power; when he shall come to be glorified in his saints, and to be admired in all them that believe" 2 Thess.
In Second Thessalonians 2, Paul continues his subject of the "day of the Lord. First, he says, there will be a dread "falling away" apostasia, foretold by Christ in Matthew 24 and Daniel 7 and the appearing, historically, of the "man of sin," or "son of perdition" 2 Thess. Paul reminds the Thessalonians that he had forewarned them orally of the great apostasy to come into the Christian church, which would be held back only by the iron might of a unified pagan Rome vs. But that would pass and the apostasy would appear. He declares that the seeds of spiritual departure were already germinating in his own day:.
And then shall that Wicked be revealed, whom the Lord shall consume with the spirit of his mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of his coming' vs.